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*Religiosity and Quality of Life. Psycho-Social Prerequisites

The article deals with relationship of religiosity and psycho-social phenomena (powerlessness, normlessness, social isolation, self-estrangement and cultural estrangement) which are inhibiting factor in relation to quality of life of individuals. Theoretically this article (besides general theory of subjective quality of life) is supported by Melvinem Seeman´s concept of alienation. Personal religiosity is not measured here by individual indicator only but by plurality of indicators.

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* What is people’s willingness to cooperate with the police and what affects it?

Moravcová, Eva. „Jaká je ochota občanů spolupracovat s policií a co ji ovlivňuje?“ Naše společnost 11 (1): 47-56, http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/1214-438X.2013.11.1.5

The majority of crime is not detected by the police itself. Its work, if it is to be effective, depends heavily on the people’s willingness to cooperate with the police. The paper compares the degree of such cooperation between the Czech Republic and other European countries that participated on the ESS R 5 research and focuses on factors influencing the cooperation. Education, feelings of safety when walking alone in local areas after dark and satisfaction with police officers´ treatment all play an important role in explaining people’s willingness to cooperate with the police.  Further, results of the analyses show that the Czech Republic and other post-communist countries alike suffer from relatively low legitimacy of the police as well as low degree of public cooperation with this institution. Moreover, the data suggest that perceived legitimacy of the police is considerably influenced by public trust in it and perception of its transparency. However, these seem to be still relatively low in the Czech Republic.

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* Selected barriers of investments into human capital

Wawrosz, Petr; Herbert Heissler. „Vybrané bariéry investic do lidského kapitálu.“ Naše společnost 11 (1): 36-46, http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/1214-438X.2013.11.1.4

If investments into human capital (HC) are as convenient as theory says why some people do not invest in the development of their HC and why other people with resources do not stimulate people without HC to invest including lending money for such investments? The paper tries to answer the question by identifying selected barriers causing lenders do not give money (resources) to the investments and potential borrowers are not willing to borrow them. From our point of view statistical discrimination and phenomena described as “acting-white” in the case of Afro-American community belong among the most important barriers, although they are not mentioned so often. The paper deals with both of the barriers and suggests how to solve them.

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* Comparison of methodological approaches of pre‑election polls used by CVVM, ppm factum, Median and STEM

Chábová, Kristýna. „Komparace metodických postupů předvolebních průzkumů agentur CVVM, ppm factum, Median a STEM.“ Naše společnost 11 (1): 25-35, http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/1214-438X.2013.11.1.3

This article deals with the issue of pre-election polling and examines the methodological approaches used in pre-election polling in the Czech Republic. A selection of Czech research agencies is presented and explored, as well as the recommendations of various professional associations.  The core of this work examines and compares the methodological approaches used by the Czech agencies CVVM, ppm factum, Median and STEM. The aim of this article is to highlight the differences in the methodological approaches among the Czech agencies and to determine whether these differences could eventually affect the outcomes of pre-election polls.

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* Changes of Voting Behaviour in Elections into Regional Councils 2012

Čermák, Daniel. 2013. „Změny voličského chování ve volbách do krajských zastupitelstev 2012." Naše společnost 11 (1): 15-24, http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/1214-438X.2013.11.1.2

This paper presents findings about changes in voting behaviour that occurred between elections into Regional Councils 2008 and 2012 in the Czech Republic. The analysis deals with comparison of real outcomes of elections 2012 and the outcomes of elections 2012 estimated by a statistical model called LOCCONTINGENCY. The estimation is based on regional structure of votes for political parties in the previous elections into Regional Councils 2008. The main objective of these analyses is to find out and to explain differences between reality and model estimation. The results help us explain the rise and decline of votes for political parties, especially for regional ones, between elections 2008 and 2012.

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* Growing Social Inequalities in Electoral Participation in the Czech Republic, 1990–2010

Linek, Lukáš. 2013. „Rostoucí sociální nerovnosti ve volební účasti v Česku v letech 1990-2010." Naše společnost 11 (1): 3-14, http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/1214-438X.2013.11.1.1

The aim of this paper is to analyze the social and class inequalities in turnout in the Czech Republic between 1990 and 2010. Thus, the study focuses on a description of the evolution of the relationship between turnout and key characteristics of socio-economic status: education, income and social class. This research utilizes a pooled cross-sectional post-election survey dataset from the Czech Republic fielded over two decades; and employs standard statistical methods, i.e. contingency tables and convergence models, to analyze change in turnout among population subgroups. There are signs of a gradual crystallization of both social and class inequalities in electoral participation. Convergence models reveal a linear increase in educational and class inequalities in turnout. In the case of income, however, this study finds evidence of a crystallization of income based inequalities in participation rather than a growth in inequalities per se.

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* Editorial

The electronic version of the first number of the eleventh edition of the review Czech Society (Naše společnost). Czech Society issues Center for Public Opinion Research, Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

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* The Czechs and the Slovak language

This study employs a range of up-to-date statistical information, including the findings of two nationwide surveys conducted on the author’s behalf, to evaluate current perceptions of Slovak in the Czech Republic. Where appropriate, the results are compared with the evidence of other questionnaires.

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* The Views and Attitudes of the Czech Population to the Cross-border Cooperation

The article deals with cross-border cooperation which has become since the 1990´s an indelible element of the regional development of the Czech borderland areas. The paper presents the results of a research focusing on the positions of the Czech inhabitants living on the borderland of the Czech Republic and the cross-border cooperation issues. The research carried out in 2008 by the Public Opinion Research Centre (CVVM) showed that the inhabitants of the Czech Republic perceive the image of the borderland areas not as negatively as can be seen from previous studies on the same topic.

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* How to measure church attendance. Problems with measuring of religious phenomenon

This article deals with problems of religiosity research in sociology. First I concentrate on more general topics connected with religiosity research as is cross-country validity of survey instruments or relationship of theoretical concepts and empirical indicators in sociological surveys. Another part is about attending religious ceremonies which is one of the most significant (statistically as well as substantially) indicators in religiosity research.

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* Politicians’ Trustworthiness as a Sociolinguistic Phenomenon

The article is divided into three main parts. In the first part, an overview of scholarly views on trust/trustworthiness is provided. The second part is concerned with the issue of how the politicians’ trustworthiness is measured by contemporary research agencies. In the third part, the experiment on politicians’ trustworthiness utilizing a new method is reported. This method is based on indirect questioning and it builds on the hypothesis that the more trustworthy a politician is, the more people will agree with his statements and consider them seriously. Four parallel questionnaires were employed. The first questionnaire (N=53) contained 10 short fictitious quotations and subjects were asked to rate them according to their solidness, acceptability, and positivity, and they were asked to say to what extent did they agree with them. Five of these quotations were used in the next three questionnaires (N=48;47;42) and the names of five Czech politicians (K. Schwarzenberg, A. Vondra, R. John, V. Filip and B. Sobotka) were attached to them. No name was attached to the same quotation twice. Respondents were divided into four independent groups and each group responded to one questionnaire. The independent two-sample t-test was used for the comparison of the ratings and 20 statistically significant results were obtained. This means the method could be one of the keys for a better future understanding of such a complex notion as the trustworthiness of politicians is.

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* Election Campaign and Declared Voter Turnout in Public Opinion Polls

This article examines the relationship between voter turnout (or, precisely, turnout intention) and variables related to the perception of the election campaign in the broader context of the other types of variables such as basic socio-demographic or political characteristics. The data used in this analysis are from surveys conducted during the period of three month before elections in 2010. All of the surveys were designed as public opinion polls and approximately 1000 Czech adults were interviewed nationwide at the beginning of each month. To explain the relationship between voter turnout (or rather a kind of readiness to vote) and the perception of the campaign, the binary logistic regression was chosen and three models were created. In relation to voter turnout, in addition to basic socio-demographic characteristics, the variables related to the perception of the election campaign are statistically significant, too. In the extended model, however, it is showed that behind the effects of most of them stands the rate of interest in politics. The only variable, which draws on a basis other than the interest in politics, proved to be awareness and acceptance of campaign influence on own voting behaviour. The frequency of consumption of media content proved to be more important than age, education and living standards. However, again behind these variables stands the interest in politics. Therefore, the interest in politics appears to be essential in relation to voter turnout in our analysis.

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* Internet Election and Digital Divide: The Case of Norway

The article deals with developments of the Internet elections project in Norway. The project for the time being peaked with the 2011 municipal and regional elections, in which voters in ten municipalities were entitled to cast their votes over the Internet. The article firstly analyses Internet elections pilot projects and discusses results of surveys focused on key preconditions of the Internet elections within the framework of the digital divide concept. Furthermore, the article is concerned with results of the Internet elections in terms of several key variables: ratio of those, who cast their vote over the Internet depending on their place of residence, party preferences and age. In spite of a high level of Internet penetration in Norway surveys and the Norwegian Internet elections have confirmed existence of two sub-types of digital divide: social divide and democratic divide.

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* Marriage and Cohabitaton in Later Age

The paper focuses on the union formation in later life using SHARELIFE data from 13 European countries. First, it shows that proportion of single individuals aged 50-69 and the proportion of those who (re)partner vary significantly across European countries. The highest levels of (re)partnering were observed in Scandinavia and the lowest in Southern and Central Europe. Second, it shows that women are much less likely to enter a new coresidential union than men in all studied countries but the relative difference between men and women vary. The smallest difference was observed in Scandinavia and the Czech Republic, the largest in Southern Europe, Austria, and Switzerland. Third, repartnered individuals tend to be younger, more educated, and more likely divorced than widowed comparing to those who stay single.

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* Editorial

The electronic version of the first number of the tenth edition of the review Czech Society (Naše společnost). Czech Society issues Center for Public Opinion Research, Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

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* Czech sociology, empirical research and data sources

The text has two parts. The first part attempts to give a broader overview of empirical sociological research in the Czech Republic on the basis of available data from project databases. The main producers of empirical research in the Czech Republic and the thematic focus of this research are then analyzed. In the second part of the article the access to the already available data sources is described, especially to those data files that are stored in the Sociological Data Archive. Important international surveys, which took place also in the Czech Republic and access to data files from this projects is then presented.

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* European Union as a global actor

This article deals with the analysis of public opinion in the non-European countries and with their view about the European Union. The study is not yet an analysis of foreign and trade policies of these countries, but it based on the opinions of their inhabitants. The citizens of these countries assessed the EU as "soft power" and as an economic superpower. Highly valued are the activities in the field of peaceful reconstruction of the former war regions, however, it is alleged that it uses few use its economical potential in resolving conflicts. However the Union is criticized for their protectionist policies in the import. Politically remains the union largely unimportant player in international relations.

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* Public Opinion on the Problematic of Czech History

The article of a mostly empirical character is drawn from archive data, from the sources of the Centre for Public Opinion Research, and from the first phase of the undertaking of a project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic entitled "The Sociological Research of the Historical Consciousness of Inhabitants of the Czech Republic". The theoretical part of the text is based on the concept of collective memory, especially on the idea of the selectivity and changeability of contents saved in the memory. This article also presents quantitative data concerning the perspective held by public opinion on Czech history, and qualitative perspectives on historical consciousness attained through the use of focus groups.

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* Civic Culture in Czech Republic from Perspective of Public Opinion Research

Following text presents some findings concerning the civic culture in the Czech Republic based on results of a special survey conducted in August of 2009 as a part of international comparative research project commemorating the 50th anniversary of realization of G. A. Almond’s and S. Verba’s original survey and their classic study The Civic Culture: Attitudes and Perception of Democracy in Five Nations.

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* Normativ and Empiric Prerequisites of Modern Democracy

The following text outlines some aspects of people‘s decision making process during elections in modern mass democracies. Particularly, the aspect of (in)competence of electorate or, as the case may be, the problem of rationality of the political audiance that creates the public opinion. The arguments proving the discrepancy between the normativ and the empiric character of public opinion are purposly disbalanced based on the evaluation of reality.

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* Fascism orders - democracy inquires

The above was the front page slogan under which the periodical Public Opinion appeared in the years 1946 - 1948. Its publisher was the Czechoslovak Institute for Public Opinion Research. The monthly was intended for both the professional as for the general public. It was published with 15 to 34 pages. It contained theoretical and methodological articles by foremost Czech sociologist as well as by international representatives of the field.

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* Survey answer editing

The article stands as the fourth part of a series about the question answering process during standardized surveys and elaborates the phase of editing the response. Major moments and processes are explained that affect the shape of final answer at this stage and the narrow relationship of these facts to the nature and quality of survey data is pointed out. Step by step those phenomenons like rounding of numerical answers, the effect of answering scales in terms of its range, frequency, polarity or response order are elaborated and facts like response styles, range-frequency effect or positivity bias are mentioned.

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* Smoking and alcohol by the children in the basic schools of the region of South Bohemia

Smoking becames the important and relevant health and social problem in the Czech republic as well as in the world. Tobacco together with alcohol is the first habit forming substance, which the child contacts or which somebody offers to him. The aim of the research is to map the situation of using of legal drugs, tobacco and alcohol, by the children in the basic schools of the region of South Bohemia.

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* Conceptions of the term “social cohesion” in public opinion and value orientations to fabric of social relationships

The article pursue how the concept of „social cohesion“ is understood by the Czech public. Firstly, the respondents predominantly do not know the concept; in addition spontaneous answers to the open-ended questions show that different meanings are associated with this concept. The second part analyses the battery of statements “what creates a cohesive society”. Three latent dimensions were identified: values of reciprocity and equality, collective identity and European liberalism.

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* Ideas expressed by the respondents about family and relations between couples

In January 2003 Centre for Public Opinion Research (CVVM) conducted a survey, which was, apart from other things, aimed at a family and family life. Our report pursues issues related to establishing a family, especially timing of certain events, and also to attitudes of the questioned to certain controversial issues of relations between couples. These opinions document well how open or conservative the respondents are.

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