* GMO – perspective of the social sciences

On the threshold of the twenty-first century science is becoming more and more a public domain. Times, when scientists researched independently of the social demand, ended already in the middle of the last century with state financing of extensive space and nuclear programs. Subsequent development of science financing aimed at supporting projects, whose results could be put into practice as fast as possible and thus improve the living standard of citizens.

 

For the first time now scientists are confronted with the fact that a substantial part of the public follows their research with great interest and literally with emotional engagement. It is always attractive for the media to write about the most recent results of scientific work in many technical, natural, but also social fields. Journalists present the results of scientific research to their readers formulated in a way comprehensible to wide public. Thus they necessarily have to simplify the information to enable the public to understand the investigated problems. An inseparable epiphenomenon of such interpretation of the scientific research results is also an attempt to bring these results as close to everyday life as possible.

We have come to a paradox, when the scientists are forced to further specialization, to very deep and extensive knowledge of one field, and yet, at the same time they have to give up on a deep knowledge of related topics as a result of the narrowing domain of scientific research. Under the influence of information presented to them about the research in progress, the public takes a stand on fully specialized problems without any knowledge of the scientific theory. With the growing civil activity of the developed democratic political systems, the public gain a wider possibility to promote their particular interests, and they enter the process of inter-mediarization (integration and mediation) of interests in the form of a movement or a public association.

Thus, apart from civic associations, other significant variables - media, public and public opinion, become involved in the decision making process in politics. Media, which function at the same time as creators and interpreters of the public opinion, public opinion and attitudes actively articulated and manifested in the public and private spheres, as well as passive public opinion surveyed by researchers, which is expressed privately, passively and often unwillingly.

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